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: Magnetic nanoparticles - fabrication, analysis and application

: Magnetic nanoparticles - fabrication, analysis and application


Mgntc Nn Prtcls - Fbrctn, nlyss nd pplctn

(ssy)

 


ntrductn

Snc th bgnnng f ths cntury, 2000, scnc nd ngnrng hs sn rpd ncrs n ntrst fr mtrls t th nn-scl. n fct, sttstcl dt frm Lux Rsrch, nc. shws tht wrldwd spndng n rsrch nd dvlpmnt f nn-tchnlgy s n xcss f $8 blln [1]. Th Untd Stts gvrnmnt ln s spndng vr $1 blln nnully [1]. Nn-mtrls hv ttrctd such strng ntrst bcus f th physcl, lctrnc, nd mgntc prprts rsultng frm thr quntum sz [2]. Th ptntl fr nn-tchnlgy s mmnsly dvrs wth ptntl pplctns n th flds f lctrncs, bmdcl dvcs, nrgy pplctns, mltry uss, nd wst mngmnt [2]. Nn-mtrls culd b utlzd t dsgn nn-trnsstrs, t dvlp nd dlvr mdcns fr lclly trtng dsss nd lmnts wthn th bdy, nd fr th crtn nw g wpns nd rmr fr mltry pplctns [3]. Ultmtly, nn-tchnlgy hs th ptntl t ffr nw, nxpnsv, nd mr ffcnt mtrls fr grtr rng f pplctns thn chvbl by bulk mtrls tdy. Wthn th fld f nn-mtrls undr wrldwd rsrch s th subst f mgntc nn-mtrls. Ths ppr wll dscuss th bttm-up synthss f mgntc nn-prtcls v thrml dcmpstn f mtl-crbnyl cmplxs, dscrb sm f th mthds usd t chrctrz mgntc prtcls, nd dscuss currnt rsrch fr pplctn f ths prtcls.


Synthss

Thr r mny tchnqus fr th synthss f mgntc nn-prtcls ncludng: mcr-mulsn, rductn f mtl-slts, gs-phs rductn f mtl cmplxs, thrmlyss f mtl-plymr cmplxs, nd thrml dcmpstn f mtl-crbnyl cmplxs. n ths ppr, th thrml dcmpstn f mtl-crbnyl wll b dscussd bcus t s tchnqu whch hs succssfully bn utlzd t synthsz mgntc nn-prtcls. Mtl-crbnyl cmplxs r cmmrclly vlbl prduct nd hv bn usd n th pst fr prprtn f cblt nd rn bsd ctlysts, mkng thm rdly pplcbl fr usg n synthss f mgntc nn-prtcls [2].

n ths synthss tchnqu, th fundmntl gl s t prduc tms n slutn, whch quckly nd spntnusly frmult nt nn-prtcls. Mnwhl, cntrllng thr sz nd shp by utlzng surfctnt, whch wll strngly dsrb nt th surfc f th nn-prtcls, prvds stblzng cp lyr nd smultnusly srvs s hndrnc fr th bndng f mr tms nt th nn-prtcl, hnc prvntng furthr grwth [4]. Th mtl-crbnyl pr-cursr srvs t prvd th mtl tms, th crdntng rgnc slvnt prvds mdum fr dsslutn, nd th surfctnt srvs t cntrl grwth nd mrphlgy. mtl-crbnyl cmplx s njctd nt n rgnc crdntng mxtur t lvtd tmprturs, whch lds t th brkdwn f th mtl-crbnyl cmplx nt ncpsultd mtl nn-prtcls wth lqud nd gsus by-prducts. n th xprmntl wrk f Yng t l. cblt ctcrbnyl (C2(C)8) ws njctd nt n rgnc crdntng mxtur md up f dchlrbnzn (C6H4Cl2), lc cd (C18H342), nd trphnylphsphn (C18H15P) t tmprtur f 220 C. n ths xmpl, dchlrbnzn s rgnc crdntng slvnt whch srvs t prvd mdum fr dsslutn f th cblt ctcrbnyl. nc dsslvd, nucltn spntnusly ccurs nd th mxtur f trphnylphsphn nd lc cd r usd s surfctnts whch srv t stblz th nucltd nn-prtcls. Th wrk f Yng t l. yldd sphrcl cblt nn-prtcls whch r 6-8 nm n vrg sz s shwn n Fgur 1 [5].

Fgur 1: TM mg f 2-D Suprlttc f C Nn-prtcls nd Hstgrm f vrg Sz = 7.2 0.5nm [5]

Punts t l. n thr xprmntl wrk ls usd cblt ctcrbnyl s prcursr nd dsslvd t n dchlrbnzn. Hwvr, rthr thn mplyng mxtur f lc cd nd trphnylphsphn s surfctnt, thy utlzd lc cd nd trctylphsphn xd (TP). By chngng th surfctnt, Punts t l. prducd rd shpd cblt nn-prtcls rngng n sz frm 4x25 nm t 4x75 nm n lngth by wdth [4]. Fgur 2 dsplys trnsmssn lctrn mcrscp (TM) rsults f Punts t l.

Fgur 2: ssmbls f 4 x 75 nm hcp-C Nn-rds (Br = 100 nm) [4].


Chrctrztn: Gmtrc nd Mgntc

n rdr t prprly chrctrz mgntc nn-prtcls nd grsp n undrstndng f thr prprts: gmtrc nd mgntc nfrmtn s f ssnc [6]. Gmtrc prmtrs nclud: sz, shp, bnd lngths, cmpstn, nd crystl structur, whrs th crtcl mgntc prmtrs r: mgntc mmnts, sturtn mgntztn, rmnnt mgntztn, crcvty, nd blckng tmprtur [6]. n ths ppr x-ry dffrctn (XRD) nd trnsmssn lctrn mcrscpy wll b dscussd fr gmtrc chrctrztn nd supr cnductng quntum ntrfrnc dvc (SQUD) mgntmtry fr mgntc chrctrztn.

X-ry Dffrctn (XRD)

n XRD, dffrctn ccurs whn smpl s rrdtd wth lctrmgntc rdtn, n ths cs X-rys, nd thr s ntrctn wth structur whr th rpt dstnc s n th sm rdr s th wvlngth f th lctrmgntc rdtn [7]. Th wvlngths f X-rys r ngstrms n mgntud, whch s n th rng f th rpt dstnc n mst crystlln sld mtrls [7]. Dffrctn ccurs bsd n Brggs lw, whch s shwn n qutn 1, whr n s n ntgr, λ s th wvlngth, d s th rpt dstnc, nd θ s th ngl f dffrctn.

qutn 1

Th utput frm XRD nlyss ylds plt, whch shws ntnsty vrsus dffrctn ngl, s shwn n Fgur 3. Frm ths n cn dtrmn th crystllgrphc plns tht r bng dffrctd nd snc th wvlngth nd dffrctn ngl s knwn, usng Brggs lw th rpt dstnc, d, cn b clcultd, whch cn b utlzd t crt mp f th crystl structur. ltrntvly, cllctn f stndrds cn b utlzd t cmpr th pks n th dffrctgrm wth ltrtur vlus, llwng n t dntfy crystl plns. Furthrmr, th qupmnt cn b cnfgurd t hv dtctr t msur X-ry bsrptn. Ths dtctr hs bn utlzd n th wrk f Hrms t l [6]. ch lmnt hs unqu bsrptn spctrum s utlzng X-ry dffrctn nd bsrptn lmntl dntfctn s btnd s wll s th rpt dstnc. Schvchnk t l, utlzd XRD n rdr t vlut pk brdnng wth sz dcrs nd thr rsults r shwn n Fgur 3.

Fgur 3. Sz-dpndnt XRD Pttrn f CPt3 Nn-crystls [13].

Trnsmssn lctrn Mcrscpy (TM)

t s pssbl t utlz n XRD quppd wth X-ry bsrptn dtctr t xtrct prtcl sz nd shp dt, hwvr, trnsmssn lctrn mcrscp s bttr tl fr xtrctn f sz nd shp dt bcus t ylds rl mgs frm whch msurmnts cn b md.

n trnsmssn lctrn mcrscp, n lctrn bm, fcusd by lctrmgntc lnss, s trnsmttd thrugh thn smpl f nn-prtcls [8]. Usng brght-fld dtctrs, whch cptur trnsmttd lctrns nd drk-fld dtctrs tht cptur bck-scttrd lctrns, n mg s gnrtd. Dpndng n th cnfgurtn nd cpblts f th TM, rslutn f 2 ngstrms cn b chvd, llwng dqut mg cptur f nn-prtcls [8]. Fgur 4 dsplys TM mg f gld nn-prtcls wth szs lss thn 20 nn-mtrs.


Fgur 4. TM mg f Nn-prtcls f Gld [4].

Suprcnductng Quntum ntrfrnc Dvc Mgntmtry (SQUD)

suprcnductng quntum ntrfrnc dvc (SQUD) s usd t msur vry wk mgntc sgnls, whch s xtrmly vlubl fr mgntc nn-prtcl nlyss. Th SQUD s md up f tw Jsphsn junctns. Jsphsn junctn s md up f tw suprcnductrs whch r sprtd by thn nsultng lyr, whch llws lctrns t crss thrugh [9]. Th flw f lctrns crss th thn nsultng lyr s knwn s th Jsphsn currnt nd s xtrmly snstv t mgntc flds [9]. SQUD msurs mgntc sgnls n th rdr f 10-9 Tsl nd lss [9].

Yng t l., n thr xprmntl wrk, utlzd SQUD t cptur hystrss bhvr f dffrntly prprd cblt nn-prtcl smpls t tw dffrnt tmprturs, s shwn n Fgur 5.

Fgur 5: Hystrss Lp f Pwdr f C Nn-prtcls t 250 K nd 10 K [5].


pplctns n R&D

Mgntc nn-prtcl pplctns r bng nvstgtd n multpl dscplns frm bmdcl snsrs, drug dlvry, mgntc rsnnc mgng, dt strg, nn-lctrncs, tc. Tw pplctns, whch r bng hvly nvstgtd by svrl rsrch grups, r: dtxfctn f cntmntd prsnnl fr th mltry nd drug dlvry nd trtmnt. Currnt tchnqus n bth f ths flds r vry lmtd nd mnmlly rbust nd nn-tchnlgy hs th ptntl t nhnc th cpblts n bth flds mmnsly.

Dtxfctn f Cntmntd Prsnnl Mltry

Bchmcl wrfr s stdly bcmng grtr thrt wrldwd. n th cs f cnflct whr sldr s xpsd t txns thr r vry fw ptns fr survvl. Currnt mdcl dtxfctn trtmnt mthds vlbl r dlyss nd bld purfctn, bth f whch hv lw rts f succss nd tk xtnsv prds f tm t undrg. Mgntc nn-prtcls r bng nvstgtd fr thr cpblty t bnd wth txns wthn th bdy. Th vrus synthss tchnqus ncludng th thrml dcmpstn f mtl-crbnyl cmplxs hv shwn tht mgntc nn-prtcls r stblzd by n rgnc surfctnt whch cts s cppng lyr. f chmclly ctv cppng lyr, whch wll functnlly bnd t th txns wthn th bdy, cn b utlzd, thn mgntc nn-prtcls cn b snt nt th bldstrm f cntmntd prsn. Thn , by utlzng mgntc fld grdnt, txns cn b xtrctd frm th bdy. n rsrch ths mthdlgy hs bn lbld tg nd drg nd s dpctd n Fgur 6.


Fgur 6: Tg nd Drg Dtxfctn f Cntmntd Prsnnl v Mgntc Nn-prtcls [10].

Currnt rsrch hs shwn succss n ths tg nd drg pprch usng gld ctd rn, nckl, nd cblt frrmgntc nn-prtcls. Th nxt phs f rsrch s dntfyng pr-dmnnt txns, functnl rgnc cppng lyrs, nd b-cmptblty [10].

Drug Dlvry nd ffccy

Drug dlvry nd ffctv pplctn f drugs wthn th bdy s nthr hvly nvstgtd pplctn fr mgntc nn-prtcls. Rsrchrs r prtculrly nvstgtng frrmgntc nn-prtcls wth rspct t trtmnt f vrus cncrs. Th gl s t hv mdcns functnlly bnd t mgntc nn-prtcls nd utlz mgntc grdnt t gud th nn-prtcl t th ffctd rgn. nc t th ffctd rgn, th hystrtc bhvr f frrmgntc prtcls s utlzd t prvd thrml ctvtn [11]. Hystrss s dpctd n Fgur 3 nd s chrctrstc f frrmgntc mtrls. Hystrss ccurs n frrmgnts bcus whn n xtrnl fld s ppld nd rmvd, prtn f th fld s bsrbd by th frrmgnt, clld th rmnnt mgntztn. Whn rvrs fld s ppld, ths rmnnt mgntztn hs t b vrcm [12]. Ths ffctvly ylds n nrgy lss n th frm f ht whch s prprtnl t th r wthn th hystrss lp [12]. Rsrchrs r utlzng ths thrml nrgy fr lclzd htng wthn th bdy. nc th mdcn hs bn gudd v mgntc grdnt t dsrd lctn, th mgntc fld s vrd t crt hystrss. Ths n ffct cuss lclzd htng tht hlps n th ctvtn nd cmpltn f chmcl rctn btwn th ppld mdcn nd th dvrsly ffctd r. Currnt rsrch s ttmptng t dvlp mgntc nn-prtcls wth lrg mgntc mmnts nd rsstnc t physcl brkdwn wthn th bdy.

Futur Rsrch nd Dvlpmnt

Fr mgntc nn-prtcls, currnt nd futur rsrch s grd twrds sz dstrbutn cntrl. Fr mst pplctns t s crtcl t hv spcfc sz s wll s vry tght dstrbutn. Currnt rsrch s pushng t synthsz supr-lttcs f mgntc nn-prtcls whch shw sz dstrbutn f lss thn 5%. Fr th pplctns dscussd n ths ppr, futur rsrch s bng grd twrds dscvrng bcmptbl cppng lyrs. Ths s ssntl n rdr t utlz mgntc nn-prtcls n vv.


Summry

Currnt rsrch hs shwn tht synthss f mgntc nn-prtcls s chvbl. Th pplctns fr mgntc nn-prtcls r vry dvrs. n rdr t mk us f th ptntl f mgntc nn-prtcls, wrk n synthss rfnmnt s ncssry, t cntrl gmtrc nd mgntc prprts. Frm n pplctn spct, rsrch s bng grd t fnd functnl surfctnts whch srv t mt pplctn rqurmnts. Bcmptblty n th cs f drug dlvr nd dtxfctn pplctns nd cnductvty n th cs f lctrnc pplctns r xmpls f such. s rsrch vlvs nd slutns t currnt lmttns r rslvd, th ntgrtn f mgntc nn-prtcls nt vrydy us bcms clrr rlty.


RFRNCS

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