-







































: 㳿

: 㳿

1.

2. 㳿 :

2.1.

2.2.

2.3.

3. :

3.1.

3.2.

3.3. ³

4.


쳿 . ᑺ . , (). 㳿 . , .

:

- .

: , , , .

, .

.

.

.

, , 㳿 . 13 1023 㳿 . ʳ 㳿 , 1000000 ճ. 㳿 , , , 1 % . c . 㳿 㳿 .


2. 㳿

㳿 . 18 . , .

ϳ .

2.1

, .

:

1. 䳺 ( ) .

ࠠ + 2

2. , , .

Π Π
+ S S + .

Π


2.2 ³ ( )

, .

:

1. ( - ), - :

H H

S + D S + D

H H

Red. Ox Ox Red

2. 䳺, :

H H

D + O D + O + Š

H H

Red Ox Ox Red

.


2.3

( ) (). 㳿.

( ) ( ). ʳ - ..: 䑺 .. , , ; .. , , .

.

. , . 150 .

.

1). ( ), Ė - .

Ԗ : , ; ; .. = 0.3 .

ͳ ͳ

CONH2 CONH2

N N

OCH2 O OCH2 O

H H H H

H OH OH H H OH OH H

O=POH O=POH NH2

NH2

O N N O N N

O=POH O=POH

N N N N

OCH2 OCH2

O O

H H H H

H OH HO H H O HO H

HOP=O

OH
:

H H H H

S + H CONH2 H CONH2

H H H H H + H+ + S

N+ N

2) 2 () . Ė , - - .. = - 0.1 .

:

O O

H CH3 N NH CH3 NH NH

S + + S

H CH3 O CH3 O

N+ N N NH


O O

CH3 N NH CH3 N NH

CH3 O CH3 O NH2

N+ N N N N

CH2 CH2

CHOH CHOH N

CHOH CHOH N

CHOH OH CHOH OH OH

CH2OPOH CH2-O-P-O-P-O-CH2

O O O

O

H H

H OH OH

H

3) , Q.

O

CH3O CH3

CH3 CH3

CH3O (CH2CH=CCH2)9CH2CH=CCH3

O

Q :

O OH

H CH3O CH3 CH3O CH3

S + + S

H CH3O R CH3O R

O OH

.. = 0.05 - - . , .

. -, , .

, . - :

Fe3+ + e Fe2+

Fe2+ 堠 Fe3+

:

< C < < 1 < 3

+0.7 + 212 + 210 + 210 + 385.

:

1. ;

2. - - - ( );

3. , , , , ;

4. , - , .


3.

3.1.

, , .

, , .

H 2+

S + + ++ +++ ++ Π

H 򠠠 򠠠 򠠠

+++ ++ +++ 2

S +

H2O

ʳ - .

3.2.

( ) . . . , . , - - . - , .

H

S + CH3CHCOOH ( )

H OH

CH3CCOOH ( )

O

() . .

. , . , .

, . - . 1940 : .

ϳ , . .

() . - 0.15. ( ).

- 㳺 -- . г - - 0.26 . .

- 㳺 Q . г - 0.29 . .

- 㳺 -. г - 0.29 . - .

㳿 , - - ( ):

H 2+

S + + ++ +++ ++ Π

H 򠠠 򠠠 򠠠

+++ ++ +++ 2

S +

-. () 0.32 0.06 0 +0.26 +0.29 +0.53 +0.82

Ԡ

:

1. , , , .
2. - .


4.

㳺 () .

㳿 , - (2-3 /.) (10-16 /.) .

- , , - , , .

, , , 1,3- , 2 .

-, , , . , . 6-8 . 㳿.

- : 㳿 -, .

ֳ - .


HO O

P OH NH2

O N N

HO P O

O N N

O=P

OH O + H2O

CH2 O

H H

H H

OH OH

NH2

O N N

HO P O

O N N

O=P

OH O + H34 +

CH2 O

H H

H H

OH OH

.


.

1. .

2. .

3. . ̳ .

4. Ė .

5. Ė .

6. Q .

7. , . . .

8. . .







2009